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Criminal Justice Resources: APA Tools

This guide was created to help off-campus students learn to do research on criminal justice and access high quality resources such as journal articles, books, e-books, and digital film.

Quick Citation Help

7 Minute Tutorial on APA


The most recent revision from APA directs researchers to use DOIs to identify electronic resources, rather than URLs. (Not all articles have been assigned a DOI) 

What is a digital object identifier, or DOI?

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. The prefix is a unique number of four or more digits assigned to organizations; the suffix is assigned by the publisher and was designed to be flexible with publisher identification standards.

We recommend that when DOIs are available, you include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.


Reference Tools

APA Documentation Style Guide from Ashland University Library



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