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BIO 110 Ecology and the Human Environment -Dr.Saunders: APA Tools

Quick Citation Help

7 Minute Tutorial on APA


The most recent revision from APA directs researchers to use DOIs to identify electronic resources, rather than URLs. (Not all articles have been assigned a DOI) 

What is a digital object identifier, or DOI?

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. The prefix is a unique number of four or more digits assigned to organizations; the suffix is assigned by the publisher and was designed to be flexible with publisher identification standards.

We recommend that when DOIs are available, you include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is typically located on the first page of an electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also often be found on a database landing page (full record) for the article.